Careful quotes place the true quantity between 30 and 40.

Careful quotes place the true quantity between 30 and 40.

  1. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73.
  2. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:277–302. Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered kiddies within plural wedding, hereditary assessment has to date been negative, though it’s possible he fathered 2 or 3 kids with plural spouses. (See Ugo A. Perego, “Joseph Smith, issue of Polygamous Offspring, and DNA Analysis, ” in Newell G. Bringhurst and Craig L. Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy: Joseph Smith and also the Origins of Mormon Polygamy Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010, 233–56. )
  3. J. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that may Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife, ” in Robert L. Millet, ed., No gun Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham younger University Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural spouses in Social and Demographic Context, ” in Bringhurst and Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy, 152–83.
  4. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, 2, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.

  5. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural wedding as Taught by the Prophet Joseph: an answer to Joseph Smith, Editor associated with the Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile teacher workplace, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural wedding (Salt Lake City: Juvenile teacher workplace, 1884).
  6. Quotes of this wide range of these sealings range between 12 to 14. (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural spouses of Joseph Smith Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997, 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s smoking meth naked Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48. ) For an very early summary with this training, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage? ” Improvement Period 49, no. 11 (Nov. 1946): 766–67.
  7. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37. Polyandry, the wedding of 1 girl to one or more guy, typically involves shared economic, domestic, and resources that are sexual and kiddies in many cases are raised communally. There’s absolutely no proof that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned this way, and evidence that is much against that view.
  8. Rex Eugene Cooper, guarantees meant to the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism, ” Journal of Mormon History 37, no. 3 (summer time 2011): 53–117.
  9. For overview of the data, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96.
  10. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (Ny: Knopf, 2005), 440.
  11. See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, usa Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), component 3, p. 124.
  12. The revelation on wedding supplied incentives that are powerful a wedding performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and Covenants 132:17–19, 63. )
  13. Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical design, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized.
  14. The historic record is striking for the shortage of criticism discovered among those that had as soon as been Joseph Smith’s plural spouses, although a lot of the spouses left no written record.
  15. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. 16, 1842, in Andrew H. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, amount 2: December 1841–April 1843, vol. 2 for the Journals group of The Joseph Smith Papers, modified by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, offered at; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed., Joseph Smith III together with Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85.
  16. Jenson, “Historical Record, ” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, usa Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), component 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:194.
  17. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, harsh Stone Rolling, 473.
  18. Doctrine and Covenants 132:54, 64. The caution to Emma Smith additionally pertains to all whom get sacred ordinances by authority regarding the priesthood but don’t abide the covenants related to those ordinances. See, for instance, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and Doctrine and Covenants 132:26, 64.
  19. Doctrine and Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the wife that is first an element of the plural wedding ceremony, standing between her spouse as well as the bride and putting the hand for the bride into the hand regarding the spouse. “Celestial Wedding, ” The Seer 1 (Feb. 1853): 31.
  20. Doctrine and Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3.
  21. Jacob 2:30.
  22. Regarding the concern of children, see note 6 of “Plural Marriage and Families at the beginning of Utah. ”

  23. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24.
  24. Heber C. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. 2, 1866, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth.
  25. Brigham younger, in Journal of Discourses, 3:266.
  26. Brigham younger, Discourse, June 18, 1865, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth; see also Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 11:128.
  27. Orson F. Whitney, lifetime of Heber C. Kimball, an Apostle: the paternalfather and Founder for the BritishMission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see additionally Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of Strength and Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867), ” in Women of Faith into the Latter times, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Turley Jr. And Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137.
  28. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch, ” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.
  29. Sarah Granger Kimball, for instance, rejected marriage that is plural Nauvoo but came west because of the Saints. Most of the people who rejected marriage that is plural including Emma Smith, later on became users of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
  30. As an example, see “Evidence from Zina D. Huntington-Young, ” Saints’ Herald, Jan. 11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins, ” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical community.
  31. Gordon B. Hinckley, “ just What Are individuals Asking about Us? ” Ensign, Nov. 1998; “Polygamy, ” Newsroom, subjects web page.
  32. Alma 26:35; Doctrine and Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17.

The Church acknowledges the share of scholars to your historical content presented in this essay; their work is used in combination with authorization.

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